Disposal of fracking wastewater poses potential environmental problems
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Disposal of fracking wastewater poses potential environmental problems

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

A recent study by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the oil and gas industry are creating earthquakes. New information from the Midwest region of the United States points out that these man-made earthquakes are happening more frequently than expected. While more frequent earthquakes are less of a problem for regions like the Midwest, a geology professor from the University of Southern Indiana, Dr. Paul K. Doss, believes the disposal of wastewater from the hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) process used in extracting oil and gas has the possibility to pose potential problems for groundwater.

“We are taking this fluid that has a whole host of chemicals in it that are useful for fracking and putting it back into the Earth,” Doss said. “From a purely seismic perspective these are not big earthquakes that are going to cause damage or initiate, as far as we know, any larger kinds of earthquakes activity for Midwest. [The issue] is a water quality issue in terms of the ground water resources that we use.”

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a technique used by the oil and gas industries which inject highly pressurized water down into the Earth’s crust to break rock and extract natural gas. Most of the fluids used for fracking are proprietary, so information about what chemicals are used in the various fluids are unknown to the public and to create a competitive edge.

Last Monday four researchers from the University of New Brunswick released an editorial that sheds light on the potential risks that the current wastewater disposal system could have on the province’s water resources. The researchers share the concern that Dr. Doss has and have come out to say that they believe fracking should be stopped in the province until there is an environ­mentally safe way to dispose the waste wastewater.

“If groundwater becomes contamin­ated, it takes years to decades to try to clean up an aquifer system,” University of New Brunswick professor Tom Al said.

While the USGS group which conducted the study says it is unclear how the earthquake rates may be related to oil and gas production, they’ve made the correlation between the disposal of wastewater used in fracking and the recent upsurge in earthquakes. Because of the recent information surfacing that shows this connection between the disposal process and earthquakes, individual states in the United States are now passing laws regarding disposal wells.

The problem is that we have never, as a human society, engineered a hole to go four miles down in the Earth’s crust that we have complete confidence that it won’t leak.

“The problem is that we have never, as a human society, engineered a hole to go four miles down in the Earth’s crust that we have complete confidence that it won’t leak,” Doss said. “A perfect case-in-point is the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in 2010, that oil was being drilled at 18,000 feet but leaked at the surface. And that’s the concern because there’s no assurance that some of these unknown chemical cocktails won’t escape before it gets down to where they are trying to get rid of them.”

It was said in the study released by the New Brunswick University professors that if fracking wastewater would contaminate groundwater, that current conventional water treatment would not be sufficient enough to remove the high concentration of chemicals used in fracking. The researchers did find that the wastewater could be recycled, can also be disposed of at proper sites or even pumped further underground into saline aquifers.

The New Brunswick professors have come to the conclusion that current fracking methods used by companies, which use the water, should be replaced with carbon diox­ide or liquefied propane gas.

“You eliminate all the water-related issues that we’re raising, and that peo­ple have raised in general across North America,” Al said.

In New Brunswick liquefied propane gas has been used successfully in fracking some wells, but according to water specialist with the province’s Natural Resources De­partment Annie Daigle, it may not be the go-to solution for New Brunswick due its geological makeup.

“It has been used successfully by Corridor Resources here in New Bruns­wick for lower volume hydraulic frac­turing operations, but it is still a fairly new technology,” Daigle said.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is working with U.S. states to come up with guidelines to manage seismic risks due to wastewater. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the EPA is the organization that also deals with the policies for wells.

Oil wells, which are under regulation, pump out salt water known as brine, and after brine is pumped out of the ground it’s disposed of by being pumped back into the ground. The difference between pumping brine and the high pressurized fracking fluid back in the ground is the volume that it is disposed of.

“Brine has never caused this kind of earthquake activity,” Doss said. “[The whole oil and gas industry] has developed around the removal of natural gas by fracking techniques and has outpaced regulatory development. The regulation is tied to the ‘the run-of-the-mill’ disposal of waste, in other words the rush to produce this gas has occurred before regulatory agencies have had the opportunity to respond.”

According to the USGS study, the increase in injecting wastewater into the ground may explain the sixfold increase of earthquakes in the central part of the United States from 2000 – 2011. USGS researchers also found that in decades prior to 2000 seismic events that happened in the midsection of the U.S. averaged 21 annually, in 2009 it spiked to 50 and in 2011 seismic events hit 134.

“The incredible volumes and intense disposal of fracking fluids in concentrated areas is what’s new,” Doss said. “There is not a body of regulation in place to manage the how these fluids are disposed of.”

The study by the USGS was presented at the annual meeting of the Seismological Society of America on April 18, 2012.

Somali piracy: Kenyan navy kills three, Chinese ship hijacked, British couple freed
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Somali piracy: Kenyan navy kills three, Chinese ship hijacked, British couple freed

Monday, November 15, 2010

Three pirates were killed late Friday during a presumed attack in error, while other pirates successfully hijacked the Yuan Xiang, a Panamanian-flagged vessel with an all-Chinese crew, and a media embargo was lifted regarding the release of a British couple whose yacht was seized more than a year ago over the weekend.

At 11 p.m. on Friday a Kenyan patrol vessel was near Kilifi in Kenyan coastal waters “when four suspected Somali pirates on board a speed boat climbed the vessel, mistaking it for a merchant vessel,” according to Kenyan Defence Department spokesman Bogita Ongeri. He said three were shot dead but the fourth “dived into the sea with bullet wounds during the scuffle,” and is thought to have died. The speed boat with more pirates on board fled, the three bodies were taken to Coast General Hospital, Mombassa.

Ongeri promised more details after discussions with the vessel’s captain adding, “[t]he government will not relent in its fight against piracy.” Kenya, along with the Seychelles, performs international prosecutions of pirates, but convictions are rarely secured; 26 suspects were freed last week by Kenya owing to lack of evidence or jurisdiction.

Andrew Mwangura of the Seafarers’ Assistance Program said Saturday, “I can confirm the pirates hijacked Yuan Xiang on Friday at midnight Kenyan time in the Arabian Sea near India. The vessel has 29 Chinese crew.” The Yuan Xiang was sailing outside the zone covered by a multinational task force combating piracy. Reports suggest its captors are heading to Somalia.

Retired British couple Paul and Rachel Chandler were released after their yacht Lynn Rival was captured near the Seychelles en-route to Tanzania 388 days ago, in October 2009. An injunction prevented reporting the release until 56-year-old Rachel and 60-year-old Paul, from Kent, were out of Somalia.

“Men with guns came aboard,” Paul told ITV News over the phone a week after their capture. “Then we were forced to sail … toward Somalia.” The seizure was witnessed by UK refueling ship RFA Wave Knight but they were not helped for fear their lives would be endangered. “This is not piracy and must not be reported as such,” Paul said in custody. “It is kidnapping and extortion and even torture.” It is unclear if money changed hands; US$7 million was originally demanded but UK government policy forbids ransom payments. “We’re fine,” said Paul. “We’re rather skinny and bony but we’re fine.”

New figures show 790 people have been kidnapped by Somali pirates this year, on course to beat last year’s record of 867. Of these, 435 remain hostage. Dr Alex Coutroubis and George Kiourktsoglou of London’s University of Greenwich say crews are repelling more attacks, and attackers have responded with increased violence. “As it gets harder for pirates to capture ships, the Somali gangs are more likely to fire at sailors with automatic weapons in order to force vessels to stop”. Some tankers have had rocket propelled grenades fired at them.

Last year saw 217 hijack attempts. This year, to date, 140, and 40 ships seized – versus 47 for the whole of 2009.

Salmonella outbreak sickens over one thousand in United States
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Salmonella outbreak sickens over one thousand in United States

Thursday, July 10, 2008

Over 1000 cases of illness have now been identified in a foodborne salmonellosis outbreak that began in mid-April 2008 in the United States.

As of July 8, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported 1013 confirmed infections throughout the United States, along with four cases in Canada. 203 hospitalizations have been linked to the outbreak. It has caused at least one death, and it may have been a contributing factor in another. The pathogen responsible is the rare Saintpaul strain of Salmonella enterica.

Nearly half of the reported illnesses were in Texas and New Mexico. According to unnamed sources close to the investigation, most illness clusters in the outbreak involve Mexican restaurants. Illness clusters in the hard hit state of Illinois were publicly identified by local health departments as involving three Mexican restaurants.

The CDC is in the process of investigating the outbreak and trying to identify the contamination’s point of origin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently suspects that the contaminated food product is an ingredient in fresh salsa, such as fresh jalapeño pepper, fresh serrano pepper, fresh cilantro, or certain types of raw tomato.

Some produce industry insiders doubt that fresh produce is to blame for the outbreak. They point to the absence of Salmonella on all of the tested produce samples to date, as well as divergent results from produce tracebacks. They also say that the extended time frame of new sicknesses makes it unlikely that either raw tomatoes or fresh jalapeños, the government’s two main suspects, could be responsible. Will Steele, President and CEO of Frontera Produce, said that “the outbreak is probably related to processed goods and they’re looking in the wrong closets.”

Steele’s Texas based company has been forced to hold shipments of fresh jalapeño peppers after loads of produce were repeatedly flagged by the FDA for testing. Although independent testing of both loads showed no sign of Salmonella, the peppers are still on hold until the FDA finishes its own testing of the second load flagged on July 1st. “There are still no results,” Steele says. “The salability of that produce in two to three days is gone. We ceased harvesting. There is no sense in bringing in more product and having it rot.”

Steele, like others in the produce industry, believes that the FDA should be focusing on processed produce instead of fresh produce. “Methodology is backward,” he says. “FDA is reaching for answers. You can’t tie jalapeño pepper shipped on June 30 back to April 10.”

Still, the FDA and the CDC consider testing of fresh jalapeños and other fresh produce a high priority. The CDC writes that “the accumulated data from all investigations indicate that jalapeño peppers caused some illnesses.”

The FDA is cautioning that people who would be in the most danger if infected with Salmonella (infants, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems) should avoid eating the suspected types of produce listed on their website.

US B-2 bomber crash in Guam caused by moisture on sensors
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US B-2 bomber crash in Guam caused by moisture on sensors

Friday, June 6, 2008

The final report into the crash of a B-2 Spirit bomber belonging to the United States Air Force (USAF) in Guam has determined that the crash was caused by moisture on sensors which caused the jet to receive inaccurate data. It was the first loss of a B-2, which costs US$1.4 billion.

The aircraft, belonging to USAF’s 509th Air Wing and carrying the name Spirit of Kansas, was attempting takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base on February 23 this year when the crash occurred. Moisture in three of the 24 air pressure sensors caused the sensors, all on the port side, to feed back inaccurate data to the flight computer.

The aircraft crew believed the bomber had reached the takeoff speed of 140 knots when in reality it was traveling ten knots slower and rotated for takeoff. The malfunction also meant that the sensors showed the plane to be in a nose down position, causing it to command a high level of pitch, around 30 degrees. This, combined with the low takeoff speed, caused the aircraft to stall and veer to the left.

Major Ryan Link and Captain Justin Grieve, who were piloting, ejected as the left wingtip struck the ground. They were injured, with Grieve suffering compression fractures to his spine, but survived. The wreckage came to rest to the runway’s left.

The report also noted that more effective communications could have prevented the crash. The vulnerability of the sensors to moisture was first detected by aircrews and maintenance staff in 2006, at which time it was discovered that turning on the 500 degree pitot heat prior to sensor calibration would evaporate the water and cause a return to normal readings. However, this was never formally noted and so the pilots of the aircraft were unaware of the potential problem or its solution.

They were also unaware that, at an earlier time at the same base, another B-2’s takeoff roll was aborted at 70 knots due to abnormal indications. After inspection by maintenance personnel, it was determined that moisture in the sensor system was to blame. After turning on the pitot heat the aircraft took off without incident.

David S. Touretzky discusses Scientology, Anonymous and Tom Cruise
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David S. Touretzky discusses Scientology, Anonymous and Tom Cruise

Wednesday, February 6, 2008

David S. Touretzky, prominent free speech activist and critic of Scientology, discussed his opinions on the recent Internet backlash against the Church of Scientology in an interview with former Scientologist and Wikinews reporter Nicholas Turnbull. The recent conflict on the Internet between critics of Scientology and the Church has been spurred on in declarations by a nebulous Internet entity using the name Anonymous that the Church of Scientology “will be destroyed”. Anonymous has directed recent protests at Scientology centres across the world, which have attracted significant numbers of individuals supporting the cause. In recent e-mail correspondence with Wikinews, a representative of the Church of Scientology declared that the Church considers the activities of Anonymous to be illegal, and that Anonymous “will be handled and stopped”.

Touretzky, a research professor in artificial intelligence and computational neuroscience at Carnegie Mellon University, has been a prominent critic of the Church of Scientology since mid-1995, and has been protesting against Scientology vociferously since then; he has also run websites that publish material that Scientology wishes to keep suppressed from the public eye, such as extracts from Scientology’s formerly-confidential Operating Thetan (OT) materials. Touretzky views the actions of the Church of Scientology as being “a threat to free speech”, and has endured harassment by the Church of Scientology for his activities.

The Church of Scientology continues to suffer damage to its public reputation through increased exposure on the Internet and vocal protests by Scientology critics such as Prof. Touretzky. A recent event that focused intense attention on Scientology’s totalitarian attitude was the leak of an internal Church of Scientology propaganda video to the Internet video sharing site YouTube, in which celebrity Scientologist Tom Cruise spoke heavily in Scientology’s jargon and stated that that “we [Scientology] are the authorities” on resolving the difficulties of humanity. The declaration of war by Anonymous followed shortly after this leak, in the form of a video posted to the Internet.

The ongoing dispute, cast by some as Scientology versus the Internet, brought Scientology terms such as “SP” (Suppressive Person, an enemy of Scientology) and “KSW” (Keeping Scientology Working) into general usage by non-Scientologists from the late 1990s onwards; increased attention has been drawn to Scientology by the release of the Cruise video in addition to media coverage. This focus has caused an even greater propagation of these terms across the outside world, as Touretzky comments in the interview.

Wikinews asked Prof. Touretzky about the impact that the activities of Anonymous will have on Scientology, the public relations effect of the Tom Cruise video, the recent departure of individuals from the Church of Scientology’s executive management, the strategies that Anonymous will employ and Touretzky’s experiences of picketing the Church.

Resistance Train Your Lower Body With The Dumbbell Lunges

Submitted by: Guy Long

Resistance training routine makes a wonderful gift for those people who want to lose fat and retain their muscle mass at the same time. With a correct combination of resistance training exercises, one can easily reduce his or her weight by burning accumulated fat within body and adding muscle mass to the body as well. Another benefit of those exercises include that they strengthen your bones and increase the bone density.

If you want to reduce your weight by retaining the muscle mass at the same time, make sure that you perform body building exercises in the supervision of a qualified gym trainer to reap the maximum benefits from the gym routine. Without the guidance of a professional trainer, it would be very hard for you to isolate and perform a combination of those resistance training exercises that help increase your muscle mass while reducing your body fat at the same time. Another benefit of hiring a fitness trainer is that he or she will also guide you on how to perform those workouts safely.

It is also important to remember that without incorporating a healthy and balanced diet plan into your daily routine, it would be very hard to get a lean and muscular body. You need to consume foods which provide you with a healthy ratio of fat, protein and carbohydrate on a daily basis. Make sure that you use foods such as whole grains, wheat grain, wheat germ, porridge, vegetables, fresh fruits, lean meats, fortified cereals, pulses and legumes. Drink plenty of water every day as water is a wonderful detoxifier and it helps remove harmful toxins from your body.

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There are numerous gym exercises that effectively target different parts of your body. If you want to work your hamstrings, quads and glutes, then Dumbbell Lunges makes a perfect exercise for you. It is one of the most effective strength training exercises to transform your lower body and strengthen large muscle groups in your knees, buttocks and thighs.

In order to perform this exercise, grab two dumbbells in your hands with your feet shoulder width apart. Make sure that you carry the dumbbells on each side of your body. Throw your right foot in front and come down in a way so your right leg makes a 90 degree angle with the floor and your left knee comes very close to the floor. Next step is to push back your right foot and switch to the left leg to perform the same procedure. When you push back your left foot, it would complete one rep. Make sure that you perform 4-5 sets, 8-10 reps each.

While performing Dumbbell Lunges, make sure that you keep your back straight with your chest up. It is also important that you flex your abs to maintain a good posture. Moreover, don t have your knee touch the floor when you come downwards during this exercise as this may increase the chance of an injury to your legs.

About the Author: If you are looking to start resistance training for your body transformation, fat loss, and overall muscular strength, then

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Former Trump advisor, Paul Manafort, receives second sentence in U.S. Federal Court
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Former Trump advisor, Paul Manafort, receives second sentence in U.S. Federal Court

Friday, March 15, 2019

A former advisor for U.S. President Donald Trump was sentenced in U.S. Federal Court on Wednesday. Paul Manafort was sentenced by Judge Amy Berman Jackson to 73 months in federal prison and to also pay financial restitution to the Internal Revenue Service in the amount of US$6.16 million.

Manafort’s charges involved unregistered foreign lobbying and witness tampering. Judge Jackson clarified in the proceedings that her sentencing decisions were not connected to or impacted by the sentence Manafort received in a separate case for which Manafort was sentenced last week. However, as part of her admonition, Judge Jackson stated, “Saying I’m sorry I got caught is not an inspiring plea for leniency.”

In last week’s action, another federal judge sentenced Manafort to a 47 month prison term. After his conviction in that case last summer, Manafort agreed to help with Robert Mueller’s investigation. However, some months later, the judge in that case determined Manafort had lied and violated that deal. That conviction was related to Manafort’s lobbying business.

In 2018, while preparing for his first trial, Manafort was kept in solitary confinement at least 23 hours per day. In that trial, he faced 18 counts of fraud pertaining to his financial reporting for his pay while working on a foreign campaign in Ukraine.

Quality Services From Phruit Limited}

Quality Services from Phruit Limited

by

Maria Backer

Phruit Limited offers all businesses based in UK and offshore their quality services in Lead Generation, Hot Key Transfers, Data Cleansing, Telesales, Market Research and other Call Centre services. The company itself is located in Nottinghamshire and has services designed in such a manner that they meet the individual business needs of the clients. The company strives towards offering all its clients the best service possible in exchange of reasonable rates. It would be highly difficult to locate another company that offers the same services like Phruit and for such low rates.

Phruits reputed Call Centre services

Listed in Phruits Call Centre services are services like Lead Generation, Hot Key Transfers, Telesales, and Data Cleansing services.

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The Lead Generation service rendered by the company is designed for working along with the clients, planning campaigns, that consists of specific questions that are aimed at the chosen demographics. This service helps all clients in getting reliable, detailed and very superior quality leads for taking their business forward, profiting immensely. The Hot Key Transfer service is actually an extension of the Lead Generation service; this service tells the clients that all the received sales calls are from the interested prospects. In this service, Phruit finishes the consumer survey and then passes the details of the prospects with their consent to the follow up team; here, the interest of the prospects are confirmed. At the final step, the prospect details are handed over to the sales team.

The Telesales service provided by the company increases revenue and also enhances the efficiency opportunities. The clients of Phruit are satisfied with the greater return on investment. Data Cleansing service is responsible for making your business and consumer database free from all the clutter and gets rid of all the wrong data, making it more updated and accurate.

Refresh

Refresh is the name given to the Data Cleansing service Phruit Limited provide. These services have been devised to meet all your business needs and also for maintaining the integrity of your business and consumer database. This service helps the business clients to control the problems that occur in businesses, affecting the database, such as reduction in business costs and risks, making sure that all communications follow the latest regulations that govern the business and consumer communications, and also in improving business efficiency.

Market Research service

This service is an essential step towards Lead Generation. Lead Generation without Market Research is not possible. Collection of customer data has to be made through several channels, such as in street questionnaires, telephone surveys, focus groups, online surveys, as well as desk research or data analysis. Through quality Market Research, Phruit Limited helps their client improve their products and also helps them meet all business requirements. The company offers its clients information on which the major marketing and strategic decisions can be based. Clients are satisfied with the end product as they save a lot of money and also have a better knowledge on the issues and questions they might be faced with.

Phruit Limited

is a Call Centre provider offering high quality services to meet all business issues. The solutions offered reveal the use of superior technology and years of experience.

Article Source:

Quality Services from Phruit Limited}

News briefs:July 27, 2010
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News briefs:July 27, 2010

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